This in turn creates additional operation challenges and costs for farmers

This in turn creates additional operation challenges and costs for farmers

This in turn creates additional operation challenges and costs for farmers. Furthermore, the additional usage of herbicides due to resistance build-up in weeds and the potential risks of these pesticide-resistant pests have diminished the environmental benefits triggered by GM crops. The GM crops commercialised at present have all been deregulated and marked as sage to human health and the environment by various regulatory agencies across the globe, such as the European Food Safety Association. Despite that, criticisms that GM and GM crops lack public research on the potential risks to human health still remain. However, the vast operational benefits for farmers and the potential to ease the food shortage problem mean that GM crops will continue to be developed. The novelty of such technology and its capability to bring almost any trait into crops require regulatory bodies to remain specific in diligence to prevent the deregulation of GM crops which could pose risks to the environment or human health.

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1556 words (6 pages) Essay

1st Jan 1970 Leisure Management Reference this

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Strategic management can be defined as consisting of the analysis, decisions and actions an organization undertakes in order to create and sustain competitive advantages.

Key attributes of Strategic Management

Strategy can be developed at many levels in a multi-layered organisation there can be:

Corporate level strategy describes a corporation’s overall direction in terms of its general philosophy towards growth and the management of its various business units. Such strategies determine the type of business a firm wants to be in and what business units should acquired, modified and sold. This strategy addresses the question what business are we in? Devising a strategy for a multidivisional company like Sony involves at least four types of initiatives.

Business level strategy deals with decisions and actions pertaining to each business unit. The main objective of a business level strategy is to make the unit more competitive in market place. This level strategy addresses the question how do we compete? Although business level strategy is guided by upstream corporate level strategy business unit management must craft a strategy that is appropriate for its own operating situation. Miles and Snow(1984) identified four modes of strategic orientation: Defenders, Prospectors, Analysers and Reactors. These strategies can help explain why companies facing similar environmental threats or opportunities behave differently and why they continue to do so over a long period of time. In turn the different competitive or business strategies influence the down stream functional strategies.

Functional level strategy pertains to the major functional operations within the business unit, including research and development, marketing, manufacturing, finance, and human resource productivity and addresses the question how do we support the business level competitive strategy? The three levels of strategy corporate, business and functional form a hierarchy of strategy within in a large multidivisional firm.

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Sony Corporation was launched by Masaru Ibuka and Akio Morita in 1946, now having head quarters at Minato, Tokyo, Japan. Sony is one of the biggest electronics in the world with revenue 7.7 trillion yen. Sony are making products like Consumer & professional electronic equipments, Communication &information-related equipments, Semiconductor, Electronic devices & components, Battery, Chemicals, Sony Pictures Entertainment, Sony Music, PlayStation and Blu-Ray devices.

Sony Corporation as a giant organization has divided its organization into five main business units as Sony Pictures Entertainment, Sony Computer Entertainment, Sony Music Entertainment, Sony Ericsson, and Sony Financial. Sony Corporation has its own corporate strategy, and the each of its five business units having their business strategy.

Corporate Strategy

Business level strategy

Functional level strategy

In Sony Group Corporate Strategy Update FY2008 – FY2010 Sony has set out some goals and revealed about its corporate strategy. In particular, the company will focus on strengthening core businesses, enhancing network initiatives and leveraging international growth opportunities to build for the future and drive further growth and profits. Main considerations in the strategy of Sony are,

A good strategy always leads an organization towards success and improvement, in the other way a bad or inefficient strategy always takes that organization into losses and bad reputation. As we know that Japanese are good at management and most of other countries are try to implement Japanese management techniques. The term is a Japanese word adopted into English referring to a philosophy or practices centering on continuous improvement in manufacturing activities, business activities in general, and even life in general, depending on interpretation and usage. Sony Corporation was good at strategic plans by applying these management strategies. As we discussed earlier a bad or inefficient strategy leads the organization into bad reputation, in the case of Sony they are failed to implement an efficient strategy which Sony’s net profit for the July-September quarter for 2006 falling 94% to 1.7 billion Yen, compared to 28.5 billion Yen for the same period last year. From there they are trying to implement better strategies and to regain their reputation and brand value and to regain their number one position in electronics industry.

Portfolio approach was one of the early approaches to chart strategy and allocate resources in multi-business organizations. As corporate strategists jumped on the diversification bandwagon they soon found a challenge in managing the resource needs diverse businesses and their strategic missions, particularly in times of limited resources. Responding to that challenge the Boston Consulting Group pioneered an approach called portfolio techniques that attempted to help managers balance the flow of cash resources among their various businesses while also identifying their basic strategic purpose within the overall portfolio. The top managers at larger farms need a method for spotting product lines that deserve more investment as well as lines that aren’t living up to expectations. So they conduct a portfolio analysis, in which they evaluate they evaluate their company’s products and divisions to determine which are strongest and which are weakest. Much as securities analysts review their portfolios of stocks and bonds, deciding which to retain and which to discard.

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Strategic business units are the key business units within diversified firms. Each SBU has its own managers, resources, objectives, and competitors. a division, product line or a single product may define the boundaries of an SBU. Each SBU pursues its very own distinct mission and often develops its very own plans independently of other units in the organization.

To evaluate each of their organization’s SBUs, marketers need some type of portfolio performance framework. a widely used framework was developed by Boston Consulting Group. This market share/ market growth matrix places SBUs in a four quadrant chart that plots market share against market growth potential. The position of an SBU along the horizontal axis indicates its market share relative to those of competitors in the industry. Its position along the vertical axis indicates the annual growth rate of the market. After plotting all of a firm’s business units, planners divide them according to the matrix’s four quadrants as shown in the figure.

Stars represent High market share and High growth rate. These products or SBUs are high growth market leaders. Although they generate considerable income, they need inflows of even more cash to finance further growth.

Cash cows command High market share in Low growth markets. Marketers for such an SBU want to maintain this status for as long as possible. The business produces string cash flows, but instead of investing heavily in the unit’s own promotions and production capacity, the firm can use this cash to finance the growth of other SBUs with higher growth potentials.

Question marks achieve Low market share in higher growth markets. Marketers must decide weather to continue supporting these products or SBUs, because question marks typically require considerably more cash than they generate. If a question mark cannot become a star, the firm should pull out of the market and target other markets with greater potential.

Dogs manage only Low market share in Low growth markets. SBUs in this category promise poor future prospects, and marketers should withdraw from these businesses or SBUs as quickly as possible. In some cases these products is sold to other firms where they are better fit.

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18th May 2020 Environmental Sciences Reference this

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Effects of Naturally Produced Methane from Cattle

With the advent of modern science in agriculture from the mid-eighteenth century, researchers began to investigate possibilities for further rises in both plant and animal production systematically. This was essential due to the growing demand for food for an increasingly urbanised European population. Scientists have attempted to comprehend the relationship between soil, plant, climate and fertilization while having recognized the significance of good nutrition and sufficient accommodation for farmed livestock. Examples include Albrecht Daniel (1723-1790) or Adam Smith (1752-1828). The importance of adequate stocking densities was written by Johann Christian Polycarp Erxleben (1744-1777), professor at the University of Göttingen. He asserted that there should be no housing of animal species in primitive shelters. He acknowledged that the air is polluted by high concentrations of noxious gases produced by animals and manure in overstocked animal houses. He argued that it would be simpler to have barns for ventilation with high ceilings and openings. This may lower the house temperature, which will be not harmful to sheep and cattle, but will enhance the quality of the air. He also suggested that cattle be given daylight in barns to improve their health and well-being (Comberg citations, 1984) These suggestions ( although not earth-shattering by current standards) obviously show that farm researchers have attempted to apply natural scientific rules to animal farming. Beef cattle were held indoors with hand feeding and urine drainage stalls were installed. Figure 1.1. Wooden model of an ancient Egyptian beef cattle house, Mektire tomb, 11th dynasty, 2134-1991 B.C. From: Benecke (1994) (following H.W. Müller, 1970.

Jürg Rohrer, a famous Professor at the ZHAW School of Life Sciences and Facility Management in the Institute of Natural Resource Sciences once said, “A cow does on average release between 70 and 120 kg of Methane per year. Methane is a greenhouse gas like carbon dioxide (CO2). But the negative effect on the climate of Methane is 23 times higher than the effect of CO2. Therefore the release of about 100 kg Methane per year for each cow is equivalent to about 2’300 kg CO2 per year.” Which leads to global warming and in some seriousness acid rain. Are we feeding them the wrong nourishment? Is it cattle welfare or is the overall quality of the pasture malnourished due to drought conditions. I guess, there’s only one way to reduce the effects of naturally produced methane from Cattle. Carbon farming. Most of us groan at the term but famous cattle farmers like South Gippsland have integrated within their management of agricultural farming practises to maximise the reduction on naturally produced methane and overall carbon emissions in the farming industry from agricultural production in the base stock of cattle in remote Queensland. Today I will be discussing three types of agriculture methods designed to reduce naturally produced methane and overall carbon emissions from cattle; carbon farming, feed additives and

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To begin with before I address the three agricultural methods, I must discuss the importance of naturally produced methane. The methane is produced through a biological change proposed by the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations as ‘enteric fermentation’; “Enteric methane production is directly linked to the level of intake, the type and quality of feed, the amount of energy consumed, animal size, growth rate, level of production, and environmental temperature. Between 2 to 12% of a ruminant’s energy intake is typically lost through the enteric fermentation process.” Methane is generated as a by-product of the fermentation method by bacteria in the rumen. This CH4 (methane) is inhaled by the animal or belched and accounts for the majority of ruminant emissions.

Carbon farming utilises a variety of agricultural methods designed to segregate atmospheric carbon into the soil through the operational method of sequestration.

Additionally, feed additives such as oils and fats reduce methane emissions by 18% with the strengthening offer of energy and protein. Consequently, feed additives undertake a process of enteric fermentation by entering the cow’s digestive system to break down carbohydrates steamed from microorganisms breaking into further simple molecules for absorption into the bloodstream of the cow. 

 Methanogenic microorganisms that are created by a prokaryotic-metabolic by-product in hypoxic conditions.

Beef cattle farmers produced their healthy cattle until new agricultural technology such as, motorized equipment, modified housing and biotechnology revolutionised the farming industry.  

Feed additives and carbon farming practises to reduce naturally emitted methane from cattle.

Carbon farming utilises a variety of agricultural methods designed to segregate atmospheric carbon into the soil through the operational method of sequestration. These agricultural methods reduce naturally produced methane from cattle. Additionally, feed additives such as oils and fats reduce methane emissions by 18% with the strengthening offer of energy and protein. Consequently, feed additives undertake a process of enteric fermentation by entering the cow’s digestive system to break down carbohydrates steamed from microorganisms breaking into further simple molecules for absorption into the bloodstream of the cow. 

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Yes, because compare to part 1, the research elaborates on the process of enteric fermentation within the cow and also the method of carbon faming, in that it explains the specific solutions within the topic of carbon farming such as the use of feed additives, which help reduce the effects of naturally produced methane and as an advantage it boosts the cows energy and protein levels. Additionally, it explains how the cows digestive system is broken down into carbohydrates steamed from microorganisms breaking into further simple molecules for absorption into the bloodstream of the cow. 

In conclusion, I reinforce the use of feed additives and multiple agricultural methods due to the benefits such as, boosting energy and protein levels

 

 Conclusion:

The transformation of animal farming towards a greater productivity occurred only when crop rotation started in England (Seidl, 1995). Every year, this scheme of growing a distinct crop on the ground used the soil more effectively and opened the way for systematic manufacturing of fodder or particular grazing fields (Seidl, 1995). In summer, cattle could be held indoors or on specially prepared farms, depending on the farm management and the quality of the soil. Adam Smith (1776, Comberg, 1984) was cited in the United Kingdom stating:‘a grain field of moderate fruitfulness produces a larger amount of food for the population than the best pasture of the same size’. Nevertheless, it was not feasible to leave animal farming altogether because farm animals were urgently required in crop manufacturing as draught animals and their manure as fertilizer (Comberg, 1984).

Animal production will be successful as time goes on and will be able to reconcile the demands placed on it, such as maintaining a high level of animal health and welfare, consumer safety and environmental protection.

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4944 words (20 pages) Essay

1st Jun 2020 Leisure Management Reference this

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The hotel industry has long struggled to establish what truly makes hotel employees motivated and satisfied with their jobs. High employee turnover in the hotel industry is believed to be due to the nature of the work, its low pay, and its long working hours. Thus, to effectively address this turnover problem, employee motivation could be an on-going and critical issue for managers in hotel operations. (Chiang and Jang 2008)

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Chitiris (1990, 293) strongly emphasized the importance of motivation by stating that “Motivation is the prime determinant of behaviour in the office and that high ability and high levels of job training will not result in high performance if the individual is completely de-motivated or under-motivated at work.”

A review of the literature indicates that there are problems in the hotel industry such as inadequate pay, low job security, limited training and development opportunities, and excessive turnover. (Cheng and Brown 1998; Deery and Shaw 1999; Pizam and Thornburg 2000; Karatepe and Uludag 2007). There are also problems pertaining to unsocial work hours and workloads in the hotel industry. (Karatepe and Sokmen 2006; Rowley and Purcell 2001; Karatepe and Uludag 2007)

The biggest challenge of employee motivation is that employees often motivate themselves, centered on their perception of what they want to achieve and how they can achieve it. However, managers who are aware of what their employees want from work can design a work environment that is able to accommodate employees’ needs and desires. At the same time, well-informed managers may be able to avoid common pitfalls that tend to reduce employee motivation. (Simons and Enz 1995)

Riley, Ladkin, and Szivas (2002) cited in Taylor and Davies (2004) that according to the World Tourism Organisation, the world’s largest industry sector is the tourism and hospitality industry. Despite the concern about quantifying the definition of tourism as an industry, for the purpose of estimating employment it is considered to be one and a half times larger than the next industry. The accommodation sector has continued to exhibit growth over the last few decades, although at various rates, and is forecasted to continue this growth both in development and employment numbers.

Weaver (1988) argued that hotel managers have experimented with various motivational theories and methods to address the problem of declining productivity among their hourly workers.