It can take up to five years for the animals to finally come back to the surface

It can take up to five years for the animals to finally come back to the surface

It was the least among younger people up to the age of 30 with 11 percent, and most among those over 60 with 75 percent. Sources used: dpa news agency

Dengue fever is a dangerous infectious disease with which you can prefer to be infected in Asia and South America. The disease is usually mild and very similar to flu. In some rare cases, however, a shock reaction occurs which, if left untreated, can also lead to death.

Dengue fever is a frequent holiday souvenir

Dengue fever, often also called «dandy fever» or «seven-day fever», is a disease caused by a viral infection that is particularly widespread in the tropical regions of South America and Asia. In Central Europe, dengue fever is one of the most common diseases that tourists bring with them. In the majority of those affected, the disease runs like mild flu without any particular symptoms and is therefore cured quickly – hence the name «seven-day fever». In very rare cases dengue shock syndrome occurs, which can even lead to death.

The disease is transmitted by mosquitoes. The little pests are out and about during the day and prefer to sting at dusk. The mosquitoes in turn can infect other people and certain species of monkeys by sucking blood.

No vaccination so far

Those who travel to tropical and subtropical areas can get vaccinated against most motion sicknesses. Unfortunately, dengue fever is not one of them. Instead, travelers are advised to stock up on insect sprays and repellents. Since mosquitoes like to surprise their victims while they sleep in the early hours of the morning, you should protect yourself appropriately at your travel destination: close windows and doors and use mosquito nets.  

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Infected people recognize the infection by a sudden fever, which can reach up to 40 degrees. Add to this chills, joint pain, muscle pain and a fleeting rash.

MRSA is the abbreviation for a group of bacteria that cannot be fought with antibiotics – hospital germs are multi-resistant. You can find the most important information about the MRSA germ here.

overview

MRSA transmission Germany – where do multi-resistant bacteria come from?

What is MRSA?

The abbreviation MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) refers to bacteria of the type of Staphylococcus aureus, which can be found everywhere – including on our skin or the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract. Around 20 percent of all people are permanently settled by them. Another 20 percent are occasionally. Although the germs are responsible for many wound infections, they rarely cause serious illness.

The special thing about MRSA bacteria is that they are resistant to many antibiotics. This also includes the active ingredient methicillin, which gave the group of bacteria its name. Methicillin was the first active ingredient that scientists developed specifically against the germs. The penicillin used previously had become ineffective. But over time the bacteria also showed themselves to be immune to methicillin, as well as to most of the subsequent active substances, which is why they are also known as "multi-resistant" are designated.

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How does MRSA transmission occur?

The following transmission paths are possible:

From person to person: MRSA bacteria are particularly often transmitted from an infected to a non-infected person, especially through the hands. It does not matter whether the person who passes on the pathogen is infected with the MRSA germ or is simply colonized by it. Via contaminated objects: These include handrails, door handles, handles or bathroom utensils such as towels. The pathogens adhere particularly well to plastic or stainless steel surfaces. It can also be transmitted via clothing and even ventilation systems. From animal to person: Contagion is also possible via contact with colonized domestic animals or farm animals.

The colonization by the germ does not always persist, in some people the pathogen disappears after a while. In older people, with severe or chronic illnesses and with regular administration of antibiotics, on the other hand, the germ is more likely to establish itself permanently.

Why is MRSA also called a hospital germ?

There is a great risk of infection with the MRSA pathogen in hospitals and clinics, which is why the bacteria are also colloquial "Hospital germs" to be named. The reason for the frequent transmissions in hospitals is on the one hand due to the high number of risk groups such as the chronically ill (e.g.best argumentative essay dialysis patients) or the elderly. On the other hand, there are many possible transmission routes such as catheters or breathing tubes as well as objects and devices made of steel to which the MRSA pathogen adheres particularly well.

Above all, there is frequent hand contact between medical staff and patients. Visitors and staff are therefore urgently required to regularly disinfect their hands and objects. Patients who are carriers of MRSA bacteria should also lie in a single room and the staff should wear protective gowns, face masks and disposable gloves when they come into contact with them. Multi-resistant germs are also more common in retirement and nursing homes.

Since 2009, the detection of MRSA in blood or cerebral fluid has to be reported by the testing laboratories to the responsible health department, such as "aerzteblatt.de" reported in a press release. 

Symptoms: what are the signs of an MRSA infection?

Even if the skin or mucous membranes are colonized with MRSA, the risk of infection is rather low, as is the side "infektionsschutz.de" the Federal Center for Health Education informed. If there are diseases, however, these do not differ from those caused by "normal" Staphylococcus aureus bacteria.

The only difference is that MRSA pathogens cannot be fought with conventional antibiotics.

 Possible consequences and symptoms of infection are:

Skin infections (boils and abscesses) wound infections, especially after operations Inflammation of individual organs (otitis media, pneumonia). Meningitis or inflammation of the heart valves are also possible.Food poisoning with diarrhea and vomitingBlood poisoning Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) with fever, drop in blood pressure and skin rash up to multiple organ failure.

Risk groups and evidence of MRSA infection

In order to prevent multi-resistant germs from spreading in hospitals, the Robert Koch Institute recommends a preventive examination for all people who have an increased risk of MRSA carrier (a so-called "Screening").

The MRSA risk groups include:

Patients who have already been in hospital for a longer period of time, as well as patients with foreign bodies such as catheters or an open trachea, persons who have come into contact with other MRSA carriers or who come from regions with a high prevalence of MRSA, persons in need of chronic care, such as residents of a retirement home, persons with strong Skin injuries and chronic wounds People who are professionally involved in industrial animal husbandry, especially pig fattening

There are various detection methods to determine whether MRSA is carried. For this test, the doctor usually takes swabs from the patient’s two nasal atria, throat, armpits and groin, and from wounds. Depending on the analysis method used, it can be determined within 30 minutes to three hours whether there is a bacterial load.

MRSA remediation as therapy

In the risk groups (and affected hospital staff) it is sometimes possible to remove the multi-resistant germs from the skin and mucous membranes. "Redevelopment" Doctors call this therapeutic measure, whereby the fight against the primary disease always has priority. Ideally, the primary disease will be healed before the MRSA remediation begins.

MRSA cleanup usually takes between five and seven days. The measures include the daily use of ointments, throat rinses and cleaning of infected parts of the body. This also includes the immediate disinfection of all objects used.

The success of the therapy is checked with smears two days after the end of the rehabilitation and further smears after six or twelve months. If no germ infestation can be detected in any of the swabs, the renovation was successful.

MRSA in pregnancy

According to the Robert Koch Institute, MRSA carrier during pregnancy poses no danger to the unborn child. The germs cannot be transmitted to the growing child via the placenta. However, MRSA carriers are more prone to pregnancy-related infections, for example in the vaginal area. MRSA cleaning is recommended here in consultation with the treating physician.

However, there is a risk of transmission to the baby during delivery. However, the general hygiene regulations for a natural birth are usually sufficient and do not have to be specially increased in the case of the carrier of MRSA germs. If it is transmitted to the newborn, the infection can usually be treated well.

How common are MRSA germs in Germany?

According to calculations by the Robert Koch Institute, around 29,000 patients in Germany were infected with multi-resistant germs during their hospital stay in 2013 alone. It is estimated that every fourth person in a hospital carries an MRSA pathogen.

In Germany there is noisy "NDR" an estimated four million carriers of multi-resistant germs. As long as a person is healthy, an MRSA germ is just as little dangerous for him as an ordinary Staphylococcus aureus germ. Because the bacteria are resistant, but not aggressive. Problems only arise when people with a weakened immune system are or become infected with the germs.

Where do multi-resistant bacteria come from?

Bacteria that are resistant to a wide variety of antibiotics are a growing problem in medicine.

The following causes have led to an increase in multi-resistant germs:

Difference between bacteria and viruses: Why antibiotics are ineffective against viruses Virus infection: Rabies – transmission, symptoms, treatment, spread Too frequent and unnecessary use of antibiotics: In everyday practice, antibiotics are often prescribed in general, without a precise diagnosis of the clinical picture. In the worst case also with viral infections, although in this case they are ineffective. Since bacteria of the Staphylococcus aureus species often colonize humans, contact with the antibiotic can lead to mutations. Resistant bacteria can develop. Incorrect intake of antibiotics: If the dose of antibiotics is too low or if the intake is stopped prematurely, there is a risk that bacteria will survive and develop resistance. Antibiotics in factory farming: The bodies of pigs, chickens and cows should always do more, which has led to overbreeding and the associated weakening of the immune system. The often poor housing conditions in modern intensive animal husbandry lead to an increased risk of infection, which makes the administration of antibiotics necessary. So-called reserve antibiotics, to which the bacteria are not yet resistant, are also increasingly being used. But the germs can also adapt to these agents, which creates a serious risk for humans and animals. Sources used: infektionsschutz.deaerzteblatt.deRober Koch InstitutPortal infektionsschutz.deBundeszentrale für Gesundheitliche AufkliftungAdditional sourcesShow less sources

In order to be able to fight the cockchafer larva, special procedures are necessary. Because the larvae, also called grubs, live in the ground, where they can become a real threat to gardeners when they are eaten by roots. Tips on how to control cockchafer can be found below.

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Cockchafer larva can cause great damage

The cockchafer larva lives in the earth for long periods of time. It can take up to five years for the animals to finally come back to the surface. As they grow up, grubs are preoccupied with one thing: eating. First they eat dead parts of plants – but then the beetles turn to the roots of living plants. For hobby gardeners, the animals can cause unpleasant surprises, provided they were not discovered by chance when digging up: If the cockchafer larva eats too many parts of the root, the affected plant can perish and can then no longer be saved.

Fighting cockchafer larvae: prevention as the key to success

The cockchafer larva prefers to be found in the soils of forests and parks – appropriate attention is required if your garden borders on such areas. The most sensible way to be able to fight the beetle larva is through prevention. There are various measures you can take in advance to prevent the grubs from spreading.

Prevention begins with making your own garden more difficult to see for the egg-laying beetles. For example, make sure that your garden areas are not illuminated at night during the egg-laying period in May. You can also use fleece and other covers to protect your garden from grubs getting into the ground in the first place. The North Rhine-Westphalia Chamber of Agriculture recommends raking the affected soil regularly and laying it out with vegetable fly nets when the eggs are laid.

Attract grubs and fight with beneficial insects

To deliberately attract the cockchafer larva, you can bury containers with a mixture of compost and horse manure in the ground – a paradise for every cockchafer larva.